JRC assessment of water pressures 1.0

The JRC has carried out an assessment of the multiple pressures on European fresh waters, based on reported data and modelling outcomes (Pistocchi et al. 2015). The assessment was made available for consultation (through CIRCA) to the WFD Working Group on Programmes of Measures in March 2015 and it is now published.

The assessment compares the percentage of water bodies at risk of not meeting the WFD objectives reported by River Basin Districts per category of pressures, with independent indicators of multiple pressures developed by the JRC at the European scale. Consistency and discrepancies are identified and the reasons for these are investigated, with the purpose of improving both the European indicators and the way of evaluating the water bodies at risk in future revisions of the river basin management plans.

The pressures considered in the JRC assessment (Pistocchi et al. 2015) are described in Table 1. Figure 1 show the WFD River Basin Districts.


Figure 1. WFD River Basin Districts (source WISE).


Full citation of the report:

Pistocchi A., Aloe A., Bizzi S., Bouraoui F., Burek P., de Roo A., Grizzetti B., van de Bund W., Liquete C., Pastori M., Salas F., Stips A., Weissteiner . C., Bidoglio G., 2015. Assessment of the effectiveness of reported Water Framework Directive Programmes of Measures.Part I – Pan-European scale screening of the 
pressures addressed by member states.
JRC Report EUR 27465 EN ISBN:978-92-79-51888-1
Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. 88 pp.

Table 1. Pressures considered in the JRC assessment Pistocchi et al. (2015).

Water Pressure category Name of field in the shapefile (all starting with P) JRC Indicator of pressure Description Reference
SW (rivers) Point Source Pollution 1.1 Point nitrogen loads Estimated nitrogen loads (t/a) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
1.2 Point nitrogen concentrations in rivers Estimated nitrogen concentration (mg/l) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
1.3 Point phosphorus loads Estimated phosphorus loads (t/a) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
1.4 Point phosphorus concentrations in rivers Estimated phosphorus concentration (mg/l) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
SW (rivers) Diffuse Source Pollution 2.1 Diffuse nitrogen loads Estimated nitrogen loads (t/a) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
2.2 Nitrogen concentrations in rivers Estimated nitrogen concentration (mg/l) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
2.3 Diffuse phosphorus loads Estimated phosphorus loads (t/a) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
2.4 Diffuse phosphorus concentrations in rivers Estimated phosphorus concentration (mg/l) in rivers, based on the model GREEN. Values refer to the year 2005 Grizzetti et al. 2012
2.5 Diffuse pollution from urban runoff Load indicator for urban pollution (dimensionless) estimated on the basis of Heaney et al. (1976)'s model Pistocchi et al. 2015
SW (rivers) Water Abstraction 3.1 Water exploitation index for consumption (WEI_cns) Water exploitation index (WEI) computed for consumption (WEI_cns) within the JRC Water Blueprint Assessment, referred to surface waters only. The WEI is computed as the ratio of net consumption, i.e. excluding return flow, to water availability (locally generated + flowing from upstream) De Roo et al. 2012
3.2 Water exploitation index for abstractions (WEI_abs) Water exploitation index (WEI) computed for abstractions (WEI_abs) within the JRC Water Blueprint Assessment, referred to surface waters only. The WEI is computed as the ratio of gross consumption to water availability (locally generated + flowing from upstream) De Roo et al. 2012
3.3 Total abstractions Total water demand (including demand for irrigation, public withdrawals, industrial usages and livestock) De Roo et al. 2012; Vandecasteele et al. 2013
SW (rivers) Hydromorphological pressures: Water flow regulations and morphological alterations of surface water; River management; Other morphological alterations 4.1 Flow alteration (10%ile) Ratio between the number of days in the year without and with abstractions when river flow is below the 10%-ile of daily discharges. The conditions without and with abstractions referred to the same hydrological settings of the year 2006 Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.2 Flow alteration (25%ile) Ratio between the number of days in the year without and with abstractions when river flow is below the 25%-ile of daily discharges. The conditions without and with abstractions referred to the same hydrological settings of the year 2006 Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.3 Density of infrastructures in floodplains Density of infrastructure within the 1 km neighborhood of rivers. The density of infrastructure (roads and railways) is estimated on the basis of the OpenStreetMap road and railway segments Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.4 Percentage catchment area intercepted by dams Share of catchment area intercepted by dams. NB: This analysis is still incomplete due to limitations in the Euro-Regional map dataset for dams, and should be regarded as provisional Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.5 Agricultural Land cover in floodplains Share of the 1 km neighborhood of rivers which is agricultural land cover. Land use is evaluated from CLC 2006 data (not covering Greece) Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.6 Artificial Land cover in floodplains Share of the 1 km neighborhood of rivers which is artificial land cover. Land use is evaluated from CLC 2006 data (not covering Greece) Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.7 Agricultural land cover in catchment area Share of agricultural and artificial land in the catchment area based on Corine Land Cover 2000 (CLC 2000) level 1 classes number 2 and 1 respectively Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.8 Artificial land cover in catchment area Share of agricultural and artificial land in the catchment area based on Corine Land Cover 2000 (CLC 2000) level 1 classes number 2 and 1 respectively Pistocchi et al. 2015
4.9 Ratio of existing riparian vegetation buffer width on floodplain width Presence of riparian functional areas: average riparian vegetation buffer width divided by floodplain width. The average vegetation buffer width is derived by aggregation of the vegetation maps described in Weissteiner et al. (2013) Pistocchi et al. 2015
SW (trac) Transitional and coastal water management, morphological alterations, point and diffuse pollution 5 LUSI Indicator of coastal pressures Simple compound indicator of pressure on coastal and transitional areas, named “Land Use Simplified Index” (LUSI) described in Flo et al. (2011) modified to be computed as a spatial indicator according to Pistocchi (2014, ch. 11) Pistocchi et al. 2015
GW Saltwater Intrusion 7 Saltwater intrusion indicator Simple compound indicator of pressure on coastal and transitional areas, named “Land Use Simplified Index” (LUSI) described in Flo et al. (2011) modified to be computed as a spatial indicator according to Pistocchi (2014, ch. 11) Pistocchi et al. 2015

References